Environment


Arctic stronghold of world’s seeds flooded after permafrost melts

20th May 2017

It was designed as an impregnable deep-freeze to protect the world’s most precious seeds from any global disaster and ensure humanity’s food supply forever. But the Global Seed Vault, buried in a mountain deep inside the Arctic circle, has been breached after global warming produced extraordinary temperatures over the winter, sending meltwater gushing into the entrance tunnel.

The vault is on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen and contains almost a million packets of seeds, each a variety of an important food crop. When it was opened in 2008, the deep permafrost through which the vault was sunk was expected to provide “failsafe” protection against “the challenge of natural or man-made disasters”.

But soaring temperatures in the Arctic at the end of the world’s hottest ever recorded year led to melting and heavy rain, when light snow should have been falling. “It was not in our plans to think that the permafrost would not be there and that it would experience extreme weather like that,” said Hege Njaa Aschim, from the Norwegian government, which owns the vault

“A lot of water went into the start of the tunnel and then it froze to ice, so it was like a glacier when you went in,” she told the Guardian. Fortunately, the meltwater did not reach the vault itself, the ice has been hacked out, and the precious seeds remain safe for now at the required storage temperature of -18C.

But the breach has questioned the ability of the vault to survive as a lifeline for humanity if catastrophe strikes. “It was supposed to [operate] without the help of humans, but now we are watching the seed vault 24 hours a day,” Aschim said. “We must see what we can do to minimise all the risks and make sure the seed bank can take care of itself.”

The vault’s managers are now waiting to see if the extreme heat of this winter was a one-off or will be repeated or even exceeded as climate change heats the planet. The end of 2016 saw average temperatures over 7C above normal on Spitsbergen, pushing the permafrost above melting point.

“The question is whether this is just happening now, or will it escalate?” said Aschim. The Svalbard archipelago, of which Spitsbergen is part, has warmed rapidly in recent decades, according to Ketil Isaksen, from Norway’s Meteorological Institute.

 

 

source/read more:https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/may/19/arctic-stronghold-of-worlds-seeds-flooded-after-permafrost-melts

Another Arctic ice panic over as world temperatures plummet

8th May 2017

Inevitably, when even satellite temperatures were showing 2016 as “the hottest year on record”, we were going to be told last winter that the Arctic ice was at its lowest extent ever. Sure enough, before Christmas, a report from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was greeted with such headlines as “Hottest Arctic on record triggers massive ice melt”. In March we had the BBC trumpeting another study that blamed vanishing Arctic ice as the cause of weather which led to the worst-ever smog in Beijing, warning that it “could even threaten the Beijing Winter Olympics in 2022”.

But last week we were brought back to earth by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), as charted by our friend Paul Homewood on his blog Notalotofpeopleknowthat, with the news that ever since December temperatures in the Arctic have consistently been lower than minus 20 C. In April the extent of Arctic sea ice was back to where it was in April 13 years ago. Furthermore, whereas in 2008 most of the ice was extremely thin, this year most has been at least two metres thick. The Greenland ice cap last winter increased in volume faster than at any time for years.

As for those record temperatures brought in 2016 by an exceptionally strong El Niño, the satellites now show that in recent months global temperatures have plummeted by more that 0.6 degrees: just as happened 17 years ago after a similarly strong El Niño had also made 1998 the “hottest year on record”.

This means the global temperature trend has now shown no further warming for 19 years. But the BBC won’t be telling us any of this. And we are still stuck with that insanely damaging Climate Change Act, which in this election will scarcely get a mention.

 

sources: http://www.climatedepot.com/2017/05/07/another-arctic-ice-panic-ends-as-world-temperatures-plummet/

and

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/06/another-arctic-ice-panic-world-temperatures-plummet/

WikiLeaks Drops the Mother Lode With ‘Vault 7’

wikileaks

8th March 2017

WikiLeaks on Tuesday dumped a trove of documents and files hacked from the Central Intelligence Agency — the largerst ever published from within the U.S. spy agency.
The 8,761 documents code named “VAult 7” contain amazing things, such as the “weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include Apple’s iPhone, Google’s Android and Microsoft’s Windows and even Samsung TVs, which are turned into covert microphones.”
“The CIA had created, in effect, its ‘own NSA’ with even less accountability and without publicly answering the question as to whether such a massive budgetary spend on duplicating the capacities of a rival agency could be justified,” WikiLeaks said in its release.
The documents show that “a specialized unit in the CIA’s Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads.”
The CIA also runs “a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware.”
The documents also show that “in addition to its operations in Langley, Virginia, the CIA also uses the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt as a covert base for its hackers covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
“CIA hackers operating out of the Frankfurt consulate ( ‘Center for Cyber Intelligence Europe’ or CCIE) are given diplomatic (‘black’) passports and State Department cover. The instructions for incoming CIA hackers make Germany’s counter-intelligence efforts appear inconsequential: ‘Breeze through German Customs because you have your cover-for-action story down pat, and all they did was stamp your passport.’ “
“There is an extreme proliferation risk in the development of cyber ‘weapons’. Comparisons can be drawn between the uncontrolled proliferation of such ‘weapons’, which results from the inability to contain them combined with their high market value, and the global arms trade. But the significance of ‘Year Zero’ goes well beyond the choice between cyberwar and cyberpeace. The disclosure is also exceptional from a political, legal and forensic perspective,” said WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange.

 

 

source:http://www.dailywire.com/news/14173/wikileaks-drops-mother-lode-vault-7-joseph-curl?

Chemistry Expert: Carbon Dioxide can’t cause Global Warming

global

13th Feb 2017

Scarcely a day goes by without us being warned of coastal inundation by rising seas due to global warming.

Why on earth do we attribute any heating of the oceans to carbon dioxide, when there is a far more obvious culprit, and when such a straightforward examination of the thermodynamics render it impossible.

Carbon dioxide, we are told, traps heat that has been irradiated by the oceans, and this warms the oceans and melts the polar ice caps. While this seems a plausible proposition at first glance, when one actually examines it closely a major flaw emerges.

In a nutshell, water takes a lot of energy to heat up, and air doesn’t contain much. In fact, on a volume/volume basis, the ratio of heat capacities is about 3300 to 1. This means that to heat 1 litre of water by 1˚C it would take 3300 litres of air that was 2˚C hotter, or 1 litre of air that was about 3300˚C hotter!

This shouldn’t surprise anyone. If you ran a cold bath and then tried to heat it by putting a dozen heaters in the room, does anyone believe that the water would ever get hot?

The problem gets even stickier when you consider the size of the ocean. Basically, there is too much water and not enough air.

The ocean contains a colossal 1,500,000,000,000,000,000,000 litres of water! To heat it, even by a small amount, takes a staggering amount of energy. To heat it by a mere 1˚C, for example, an astonishing 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules of energy are required.

Let’s put this amount of energy in perspective. If we all turned off all our appliances and went and lived in caves, and then devoted every coal, nuclear, gas, hydro, wind and solar power plant to just heating the ocean, it would take a breathtaking 32,000 years to heat the ocean by just this 1˚C!

In short, our influence on our climate, even if we really tried, is miniscule!

So it makes sense to ask the question – if the ocean were to be heated by ‘greenhouse warming’ of the atmosphere, how hot would the air have to get? If the entire ocean is heated by 1˚C, how much would the air have to be heated by to contain enough heat to do the job?

Well, unfortunately for every ton of water there is only a kilogram of air. Taking into account the relative heat capacities and absolute masses, we arrive at the astonishing figure of 4,000˚C.

That is, if we wanted to heat the entire ocean by 1˚C, and wanted to do it by heating the air above it, we’d have to heat the air to about 4,000˚C hotter than the water.

And another problem is that air sits on top of water – how would hot air heat deep into the ocean? Even if the surface warmed, the warm water would just sit on top of the cold water.

Thus, if the ocean were being heated by ‘greenhouse heating’ of the air, we would see a system with enormous thermal lag – for the ocean to be only slightly warmer, the land would have to be substantially warmer, and the air much, much warmer (to create the temperature gradient that would facilitate the transfer of heat from the air to the water).

Therefore any measurable warmth in the ocean would be accompanied by a huge and obvious anomaly in the air temperatures, and we would not have to bother looking at ocean temperatures at all.

So if the air doesn’t contain enough energy to heat the oceans or melt the ice caps, what does?

The earth is tilted on its axis, and this gives us our seasons. When the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, we have more direct sunlight and more of it (longer days). When it is tilted away from the sun, we have less direct sunlight and less of it (shorter days).

The direct result of this is that in summer it is hot and in winter it is cold. In winter we run the heaters in our cars, and in summer the air conditioners. In winter the polar caps freeze over and in summer 60-70% of them melt (about ten million square kilometres). In summer the water is warmer and winter it is cooler (ask any surfer).

All of these changes are directly determined by the amount of sunlight that we get. When the clouds clear and bathe us in sunlight, we don’t take off our jumper because of ‘greenhouse heating’ of the atmosphere, but because of the direct heat caused by the sunlight on our body. The sun’s influence is direct, obvious, and instantaneous.

If the enormous influence of the sun on our climate is so obvious, then, by what act of madness do we look at a variation of a fraction of a percent in any of these variables, and not look to the sun as the cause?

Why on earth (pun intended) do we attribute any heating of the oceans to carbon dioxide, when there is a far more obvious culprit, and when such a straightforward examination of the thermodynamics render it impossible.

 

source: http://principia-scientific.org/chemistry-expert-carbon-dioxide-cant-cause-global-warming/

Australia PM adviser says climate change is ‘UN-led ruse to establish new world order’

global warming

24th Jan 2016

Climate change is a hoax developed as part of a secret plot by the United Nations to undermine democracies and takeover the world, a top adviser to Tony Abbott, Australia’s prime minister, has warned.

Maurice Newman, the chief business adviser to the prime minister, said the science showing links between human activity and the warming climate was wrong but was being used as a “hook” by the UN to expand its global control.

“This is not about facts or logic. It’s about a new world order under the control of the UN,” he wrote in The Australian.

“It is opposed to capitalism and freedom and has made environmental catastrophism a household topic to achieve its objective.” Born in Ilford, England, and educated in Australia, Mr Newman, a staunch conservative and former chairman of the Australian Stock Exchange, has long been an outspoken critic of climate change science.

He was appointed chairman of the government’s business advisory council by Mr Abbott, who himself is something of a climate change sceptic and once famously described climate change as “absolute cr**” – a comment he later recanted.

In his comment piece – described by critics as “whacko” – Mr Newman said the world has been “subjected to extravagance from climate catastrophists for close to 50 years”.

“It’s a well-kept secret, but 95 per cent of the climate models we are told prove the link between human CO2 emissions and catastrophic global warming have been found, after nearly two decades of temperature stasis, to be in error,” he wrote.

“The real agenda is concentrated political authority. Global warming is the hook. Eco-catastrophists [ …] have captured the UN and are extremely well funded. They have a hugely powerful ally in the White House.”

Environmental groups and scientists described Mr Newman as a ‘crazed’ conspiracy theorist and some called on him to resign.

“His anti-science, fringe views are indistinguishable from those made by angry trolls on conspiracy theory forums,” said the Climate Change Council.

Professor Will Steffen, a climate change scientist, told The Australian Financial Review: “These are bizarre comments that would be funny if they did not come from [Mr Abbott’s] chief business adviser.” Mr Abbott’s office did not respond but his environment minister said he did not agree with Mr Newman’s comments.

The article was written by Mr Newman to coincide with a visit by Christiana Figueres, the UN climate change negotiation, who has urged Australia to reduce its reliance on coal. Australia is one of the world’s biggest emitters of carbon emissions per capita.

Since his election in 2013, Mr Abbott has abolished Labor’s carbon tax, scaled back renewable energy targets and appointed sceptics to several significant government positions.

 

 

source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/australia/11591193/Australia-PM-advisor-says-climate-change-a-UN-led-ruse.html

World temperatures hit new high in 2016 for third year in a row

global

19th Jan 2017

World temperatures hit a record high for the third year in a row in 2016, creeping closer to a ceiling set for global warming with extremes including unprecedented heat in India and ice melt in the Arctic, U.S. government agencies said on Wednesday.

The data, supported by findings from other organisations, was issued two days before the inauguration of U.S. President-elect Donald Trump, who questions whether climate change has a human cause.

Average surface temperatures over land and the oceans in 2016 were 0.94 degrees Celsius (1.69 degrees Fahrenheit) above the 20th-century average of 13.9C (57.0F), according to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

U.S. space agency NASA reported almost identical data, and the UK Met Office and University of East Anglia, which also track global temperatures for the United Nations, said 2016 was the hottest year on record.

Temperatures, lifted both by man-made greenhouse gases and a natural El Nino event that released heat from the Pacific Ocean last year, beat the previous record in 2015, when 200 nations agreed a plan to limit global warming. That peak had in turn eclipsed 2014.

“We don’t expect record years every year, but the ongoing long-term warming trend is clear,” said Gavin Schmidt, director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

Global temperature records date back to the 1880s. Temperatures are unlikely to set a new peak in 2017 after the El Nino faded, even as greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels keep building up in the atmosphere, led by China and the United States.

Piers Forster, climate expert at the University of Leeds, said this year was likely to be cooler. “However, unless we have a major volcanic eruption, I expect the record to be broken again within a few years,” he said. Ash from big eruptions can dim sunlight.

NATURAL DISASTERS

Among last year’s extreme weather events, wildfires in Alberta were the costliest natural disaster in Canada’s history while Phalodi in west India recorded a temperature of 51C (123.8°F) on May 19, a national record.

North America also had its warmest year on record, the Great Barrier Reef off Australia suffered severe damage from rising temperatures, and sea ice in both the Arctic Ocean and around Antarctica is at record lows for mid-January.

At a conference in Paris in late 2015, governments agreed a plan to phase out fossil fuels this century and shift to renewable energies such as wind and solar power.

They agreed to limit warming to “well below” 2 degrees Celsius (3.6F) above pre-industrial times, while pursuing efforts for 1.5C (2.7F). By that yardstick, the rise stood at about 1.1C (2.0F) in 2016.

“Long-term indicators of human-caused climate change reached new heights in 2016,” Petteri Taalaas, head of the U.N.’s World Meteorological Organisation said, referring to rising levels of carbon dioxide and methane.

Trump, who has described climate change as a hoax, has threatened to cancel the Paris Agreement and shift to exploiting cheap domestic coal, oil and gas. At a meeting in Marrakesh days after Trump’s victory, however, almost 200 nations said it was an “urgent duty” to combat climate change.

“The hottest year on record is such a clear warning siren that even President-elect Trump cannot ignore,” said Mark Maslin, Professor of Climatology at University College London.

source: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/world-temperatures-hit-high-2016-153002544.html

Martians could have been wiped out by global warming

stupid shit

6th Dec 2016

Global warming that scorched the surface of Mars for up to 10 million years may have wiped out life on the Red Planet, it is claimed.

It is thought Mars froze over roughly 3.8 billion years ago before warming periods melted the surface and created deep valleys and canyons.

Scientists believe this could by why the planet has water-carved features.

Water provides the conditions needed for life – so there could have been living organisms on Mars billions of years ago.

However, if there was life on Mars it would have been wiped out by climate change.

A build-up of greenhouse gasses in Mars’ dense atmosphere is thought to have sparked dramatic climate cycles.

Some studies have suggested the warming of Mars was brought on by asteroid impacts, but many researchers believe warming cycles are responsible.

Natasha Batalha, a graduate student of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, said: “With the cycling hypothesis, you get these long periods of warmth that give you sufficient time to form all the different Martian valley networks.”

The valleys on Mars are similar in width to the Grand Canyon – which is thought to have been carved out 16 million years ago when the Colorado River swelled after melting.

 

This type of climate model demonstrates how warming periods caused by greenhouse gasses persisted for millions of years, researchers claim.

Jim Kasting, a professor of geosciences at Penn State, said: “We think Mars had to be warm for millions to tens of millions of years, and the impact hypothesis can keep it warm for thousands of years.”

“In terms of water, we need millions of meters of rainfall, and they (previous studies) can get hundreds of meters.”

Batalha added: “Mars is in this precarious position where it’s at the outer edge of the habitable zone.”

“It’s receiving less solar flux, so you start at a glaciated state.”

“There is volcanic out-gassing, but because you are colder, you don’t get the same deposition of carbon back into the planet’s surface.”

“Instead, you get this atmospheric build-up and your planet slowly starts to rise in temperature.”

Researcher are still trying to work out if Mars could have produced enough carbon dioxide and hydrogen for this process to work.

Kasting said: “We would be well off if early Mars had plate tectonics just like Earth has today.”

“Then it works.”

“But that’s a big debate.”

“A lot of people don’t think Mars ever had it.”

 

 

source:http://nypost.com/2016/12/05/martians-could-have-been-wiped-out-by-global-warming/

DHS Sued for Ignoring Environmental Effects of Mass Immigration

immigration

18th Nov 2016

A federal complaint has been filed against the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Secretary Jeh Johnson for their “actions concern[ing] the entry and settlement of multitudinous foreign nationals into the United States.”

The DHS, and Secretary Johnson (in his official capacity) have been sued for the damage that has been caused to citizens because of expansive immigration policies and lax enforcement, and for not conducting an environmental analysis of the effect of their policies. The plaintiffs want transparency from the federal government and environmentally informed decision-making.

The nine plaintiffs urge that communities have been harmed and overwhelmed by school overcrowding, traffic congestion, water and air pollution, destruction of property and livestock, loss of green space, and interference with the peaceful enjoyment of private property. There were 14 affidavits attached to the complaint by those harmed by the federal government’s policies.

Affiant Don Rosenberg’s 25-year-old son Drew was in his second year of law school when an unlicensed illegal-alien driver ran over him three times and killed him. Rosenberg’s affidavit, an exhibit to the lawsuit, notes the stresses caused by congested areas, including traffic tie-ups and congestion, and says that the growing population in southern California has meant that there is not enough water to sustain the population. Rosenberg has lived in southern California for 30 years and he says he supports the lawsuit because DHS failed to take into account the environmental impacts of its mass immigration policies. Rosenberg maintains a website explaining the horrific things his family went through after his son was murdered by an illegal alien.

The plaintiffs, who are represented by the Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI), want DHS to be transparent to the public and report “all potential impacts of the action.”

Lead IRLI counsel, Julie Axelrod told Breitbart Texas, “The federal government has been ignoring our nation’s preeminent environmental law for the past 46 years. NEPA, which stated directly that endless population growth is not in the national interest, was supposed to prevent exactly what has happened— that the public is in the dark about the massive environmental impact of the policy choices of their government.”

Axelrod explains, “In 2015, there was one new immigrant for every two births in the United States— which means a huge amount of population growth is entirely due to government policy. But DHS has never done any analysis of the environmental impact of deluge added to deluge of people. How can DHS imagine they have no environmental effect? The government recognizes that if it builds a new road or a new school it has an environmental impact—but why does it think new roads or schools, or other structures are built in the first place, if not to serve the needs of the population?”

The nine plaintiffs include: Californians for Population Stabilization, Arizona Association of Conservation Districts, Floridians for Sustainable Population, Scientists and Environmentalists for Population Stabilization, New Mexico Cattlegrowers Association, Floridians for Sustainable Population,Whitewater Draw Natural Resource Conservation District, the Hereford Natural Resource Conservation District, Glen Colton, and Ralph Pope.

The plaintiffs charge that the DHS has closed its eyes to the environmental effects of immigration and has ignored federal law that governs the issue. They point to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and urge that federal law requires any federal agency to take a “hard look” at every “major federal action.” They urge that the U.S. government must consider any action that will affect the environment, and to both analyze and publicize those effects.

They seek to force DHS to contemplate the “enormous impacts to the human environment caused by legal and illegal immigration.”

Ian Smith, a spokesman for the Immigration Reform Law Institute told Breitbart Texas:

The Left has always been vocal about American consumption rates, i.e., that one fifth of the world’s oil is consumed in America, while its share of the population is only five percent. But they say nothing about the U.S. being easily the number one importer of people on the planet. Indeed, America’s population growth rate is comparable to that of the Third World. Currently, over 10 percent of all the people born in Mexico are living in the U.S., all of whom now consume like Americans. It is estimated that the carbon footprint of the average immigrant is four times higher than it would have been had they remained at home. America’s high population growth and high consumption means we have an outsized impact on the world’s environmental systems. Quite simply, reducing immigration is the best way to reduce our carbon footprint on the planet.

Smith says much of the immigration-control movement was actually founded and supported by environmentalists. He points to Obama’s chief science adviser, John Holdren, who he says was a staunch restrictionist in the 1970s, and other notable public environmentalists like Nelson Rockefeller, Gaylord Nelson, and Population Bomb-author Paul R. Ehrlich.

“Even bellwether environmental groups like the Sierra Club understood the harmful effects of unregulated immigration. The Sierra Club flipped in the mid-nineties after they got a $100-million dollar check from a hedge fund manager who didn’t like their immigration angle,” Smith urges. “Now they won’t even share a platform with environmentally-focused restrictionist groups.”

The IRLI highlights the Census Bureau and says that half of all urban sprawl is a result of population growth. They note a report by the Center for Immigration Studies and say that 80 percent of the population growth is attributed to immigration. They also say that between 1990 and 2010, the population in the United States grew by over 61 million people and this can be attributed to the wide immigration policies and soft immigration enforcement of DHS and the INS before it. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (“INS”) was the predecessor to the DHS.

It is projected that the population of the U.S. will grow from 321.37 million (2015 figures), to 407.41 million in 2055.

Former Colorado Democratic Governor Richard D. Lamm told Breitbart Texas, “Americans have a right to know the environmental impacts of our government’s mass immigration policies, especially when half of all immigrants go to just five metropolitan areas in the country: New York, Chicago, San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles and Southern Florida. It’s no coincidence that the latter two sprawl-centers contain the largest number of species now on America’s endangered list.”

Lamm, an affiant in the lawsuit, now serves as the co-director of the Institute for Public Policy Studies at the University of Denver in Colorado. He is the author of the book “Population and the Law.”

 

 
source; http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2016/11/16/saudis-prohibit-international-schools-observing-non-islamic-holidays/

Concentration of CO2 in atmosphere hits new high: UN

burns climate change

24th Oct 2016

Geneva (AFP) – The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere averaged a record 400 parts per million in 2015, an ominous milestone for the planet’s health, the UN said Monday.

The greenhouse gas has previously passed the 400 ppm threshold on certain months in specific locations but never on an annual global basis, the United Nations World Meteorological Organization said.

In its latest Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, WMO also reported that CO2 concentration rates had “surged again to new records in 2016” and predicted the annual average would stay above 400 ppm “for many generations.”

The concentration of CO2 spiked in part because of a strong El Nino, the whether phenomenon that occurs every four to five years with a broadly warming effect.

El Nino “triggered droughts in tropical regions and reduced the capacity of ‘sinks’ like forests, vegetation and the oceans to absorb CO2,” WMO said.

But the head of the Geneva-based agency, Petteri Taalas, warned against complacency just because El Nino has subsided for now.

“The El Nino event has disappeared. Climate change has not,” he said.

Taalas called CO2 “the elephant in the room” in the battle to rein in climate change.

He applauded the landmark deal reached in Rwanda’s capital Kigali earlier this month to phase out hydrofluorocarbons, a category of dangerous greenhouse gases widely used in refrigerators and air conditioners.

But he said that without similarly bold action against C02 emissions, the world will fail to meet the goals laid out in the historic Paris Agreement on climate change.

The WMO’s annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin tracks concentrations of gasses in the atmosphere, rather than emissions.

Aside from CO2, the report monitors concentration rates of methane, nitrous oxide and several other gases with a major impact on climate change.

 

source:https://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/a/32992240/concentration-of-co2-in-atmosphere-hits-new-high-un/#page1